Ornamental fish farming

image of Ornamental fish farming
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Ornamental fish farming has been practised for over a thousand years and began with the breeding of gold-fish in China. Today the variety of commercial enterprises producing ornamental fish is as wide as the species produced. This chapter covers health controls, problems, production and distribution.

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Figure 3.1 Koi-rearing ponds in the Far East. In Japan, most koi are reared in large earth ponds on an extensive basis. (Courtesy of R. Hale.)
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Figure 3.2 These large purpose-built holding ponds are typical of intensive farming systems used in Israel. (Courtesy of Mag Noy.)
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Figure 3.3 Manual stripping of female koi. The fish is sedated and gentle manual pressure applied to the abdomen to massage the eggs through the vent. (Courtesy of Mag Noy.)
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Figure 3.4 Milt (sperm) is collected from male koi and placed in containers immersed in ice. (Courtesy of Mag Noy.)
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Figure 3.5 Adding milt to freshly stripped eggs from koi. (Courtesy of Mag Noy.)
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Figure 3.6 Gentle and thorough mixing of milt and eggs is achieved on a mechanical rocking table. (Courtesy of Mag Noy.)
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Figure 3.7 Fertilized eggs are incubated in Zuger jars. These open-topped glass funnels have an upflow of fresh water which keeps the eggs in constant motion. (Courtesy of Mag Noy.)
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Figure 3.8 Fry-rearing ponds, where warm water temperatures are maintained inside polyethylene tunnels.
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Figure 3.9 Massive outdoor ponds where koi are grown on to a size suitable for sale.
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Figure 3.10 Koi in natural earth ponds. The water clarity is often very different from that in hobbyist ponds. (Courtesy of R. Hale.)
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Figure 3.11 Goldfish being netted in the rearing ponds prior to transfer to holding tanks and sale. A paddle-wheel aerator is operating in the background. (Courtesy of Mag Noy.)
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Figure 3.12 A natural earth pond in the Far East that has been drained as part of an annual pond management programme. (Courtesy of B. Brewster.)
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Figure 3.13 Packing facility in Israel, where fish are prepared for export.
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Figure 3.14 Typical container for exporting koi. Using a double-bag system, the inner bag is filled to one third of its volume with water, inflated with oxygen and placed inside an insulated cardboard box. (© W.H. Wildgoose.)

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