Pituitary dwarfism

image of Pituitary dwarfism
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Dwarfism or growth retardation may be caused by several endocrine and non-endocrine causes. This chapter will concentrate on congenital growth hormone deficiency.

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4.1 Schematic illustration of canine pituitary gland development.
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4.2 Simplified diagram of the hypophysiotrophic regulation of the secretion of hormones in the adenohypophysis (modified from ). ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone; AL = anterior lobe; AVP = arginine-vasopressin; CRH = corticotropin-releasing hormone; DA = dopamine; FSH = follicle-stimulating hormone; GH = growth-hormone; GHRH = growth hormone-releasing hormone; GnRH = gonadotropin-releasing hormone; IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor-1; LH = luteinizing hormone; MSH = melanocyte-stimulating hormone; PI = pars intermedia; PIF = prolactin inhibitory factor; PRH = prolactin-releasing hormone; PRL = prolactin; SRIF = somatotropin-releasing factor (somatostatin); TRH = thyroid-releasing hormone; TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone; + = stimulation; – = inhibition.
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4.3 Schematic illustration of the regulation of pituitary growth hormone secretion. GH = growth hormone; GHRH = growth hormone-releasing hormone; IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor-1; + = stimulation; – = inhibition.
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4.5 A 6-month-old German Shepherd bitch with growth retardation, retention of secondary hairs (puppy coat) and lack of primary hairs due to pituitary dwarfism.
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4.6 German Shepherd dwarf with the characteristic pointed muzzle, typical of these animals.
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4.7 Results of a GHRH stimulation test in eight German Shepherd Dogs with pituitary dwarfism (red line) and in eight adult healthy Beagles (blue line; mean ± standard error (shaded area).
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4.8 Mean (± standard error) plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH), prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) during a combined pituitary anterior lobe function test in eight German Shepherd dwarfs ( ) and eight healthy Beagles ( ).
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4.9 Contrast-enhanced CT image of the pituitary area of a German Shepherd dwarf at 6 months of age (pituitary height 3.6 mm, pituitary width 4.3 mm). A radiolucent area with a diameter of 1.5 mm is visible in the pituitary, suggestive of a cyst (arrowed).
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