image of Hyperparathyroidism
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Primary hyperparathyroidism is an uncommon disease in dogs and is rare in cats but must still be considered as a possible cause of hypercalcaemia, particularly in an older, relatively asymptomatic dog. This chapter will discuss all recognized forms of hyperparathyroidism and their appropriate management strategies. Case examples: 10-year old male neutered Keeshond, 23.5 kg; 11-year-old male Beagle, 17 kg

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6.1 Schematic representation of the anatomical position of the parathyroid glands.
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6.2 Histological appearance of the parathyroid glands from a healthy dog, showing cords or nests of cells around capillaries. H&E stain; bar = 50 µm. (Courtesy of Fernando Constantino-Casas)
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6.3 Calcium homeostasis. The release of PTH causes increased uptake of calcium in the kidney and gut, and mobilization from the skeleton.
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6.5 The skeletal calcium acts as a reservoir, so that calcium can be stored or mobilized, depending on need.
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6.7 Lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs showing a large nephrolith in the left kidney and multiple smaller uroliths.
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6.9 Ultrasonographic image of the ventral neck showing the right thyroid gland (arrow) containing a large, hypoechoic parathyroid nodule (dimensions delineated by dotted lines).
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6.10 Removal of a parathyroid adenoma. The thyroid (dark red) is visible overlying the trachea with a smaller, paler, parathyroid nodule (at tip of cotton bud). (Courtesy of Ed Friend)
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