Frogs and toads

image of Frogs and toads
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This chapter provides the need-to-know information on frogs and toads:

  • Biology
  • Husbandry
  • Handling and restraint
  • Diagnostic approach
  • Common conditions
  • Supportive care
  • Anaesthesia and analgesia
  • Common surgical procedures
  • Euthanasia
  • Drug formulary.

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17.1 Common anurans kept as pets: fire-bellied frog (); European toad (); White’s tree frog (); horned frog (); blue poison dart frog (). (e, © Bristol Zoo Gardens.)
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17.3 Enclosures for small anurans. (© Bristol Zoo Gardens.)
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17.4 Restraint of a toad with the rear legs immobilized. Note the rinsed latex gloves used for handling.
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17.5 Oral examination using a soft rubber spatula.
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17.7 Radiography of anurans. A transparent plastic bag or container can be used for minimal restraint. Positioning for a lateral view.
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17.8 DV view of a normal anuran obtained with a dental machine. Lateral view of a normal White’s tree frog. Pneumonia in a bullfrog. (c, Courtesy of B. Levine.)
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17.9 Ultrasonography of anurans. Using a 5 MHz convex probe on a White’s tree frog will show the beating heart and the presence of eggs, but a higher frequency probe (e.g. 7.5–8 MHz) will give far better diagnostic detail. A transparent container with a small amount of gel for the anuran to sit on, as well as gel on the probe on the other side of the container, allows minimal restraint for stressed or debilitated patients for a quick assessment of the coelomic cavity.
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17.12 Corneal oedema in a White’s tree frog. The cause was determined to be bacterial and the patient responded to topical antibiotics.
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17.13 Bacterial septicaemia and dermatitis (‘red-leg’) in a frog. (Courtesy of A. Lennox.)
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17.14 Tapeworm cysts in a White’s tree frog. (Courtesy of B. Levine.)
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17.15 Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in a horned frog. Note the deformities of the cortices of the long bones, including the pathological fracture in the extended forelimb. There is poor definition of the pelvis. (Courtesy of M. Conn.)
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17.16 Neoplastic mass in an African clawed frog. (Courtesy of M. Kramer.)
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17.17 Injection sites. Intramuscular. Intracoelomic. Dorsal lymph sac.
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17.18 Anaesthetizing a horned frog with MS-222. (Courtesy of B. Levine.)
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17.19 Successful repair of bilateral tibial fractures in an American bullfrog, using an external fixation device. (Courtesy of D. Johnson.)
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