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Patients with gastrointestinal, liver or pancreatic disease

image of Patients with gastrointestinal, liver or pancreatic disease
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Abstract

Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and pancreas in dogs and cats can occur separately or concurrently. The most important considerations for supportive care in all of these diseases are: fluid and electrolyte balance; nutrition; and, particularly for pancreatic disease, analgesia. There are also nursing, homecare and infection control considerations for the dog or cat with vomiting and diarrhoea. Acute parvovirus infection in a puppy; Inflammatory bowel disease in a dog; Acute sever pancreatitis in a dog; Chronic pancreatitis in a dog; ‘Triaditis’ in a cat; Chronic hepatitis in a dog.

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Figures

Image of Puppy with parvovirus infection. Following analgesia she is comfortable but she is very cachexic and in clear need of nutrition. (Courtesy of Johan Schoeman)
Puppy with parvovirus infection. Following analgesia she is comfortable but she is very cachexic and in clear need of nutrition. (Courtesy of Johan Schoeman) Puppy with parvovirus infection. Following analgesia she is comfortable but she is very cachexic and in clear need of nutrition. (Courtesy of Johan Schoeman)
Image of It is important wherever possible to use an infusion pump when rehydrating small puppies to prevent over- or under-infusion of fluids. Urine output should be monitored.
It is important wherever possible to use an infusion pump when rehydrating small puppies to prevent over- or under-infusion of fluids. Urine output should be monitored. It is important wherever possible to use an infusion pump when rehydrating small puppies to prevent over- or under-infusion of fluids. Urine output should be monitored.
Image of The puppy was fed via a naso-oesophageal tube. (Courtesy of Johan Schoeman)
The puppy was fed via a naso-oesophageal tube. (Courtesy of Johan Schoeman) The puppy was fed via a naso-oesophageal tube. (Courtesy of Johan Schoeman)
Image of A patient receiving barrier nursing care. (Reproduced from BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Advanced Veterinary Nursing, 2nd edn)
A patient receiving barrier nursing care. (Reproduced from BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Advanced Veterinary Nursing, 2nd edn) A patient receiving barrier nursing care. (Reproduced from )
Image of Ultrasound scan of an intussusception in a dog. (Courtesy of Diagnostic Imaging Department, Queen’s Veterinary School Hospital, University of Cambridge)
Ultrasound scan of an intussusception in a dog. (Courtesy of Diagnostic Imaging Department, Queen’s Veterinary School Hospital, University of Cambridge) Ultrasound scan of an intussusception in a dog. (Courtesy of Diagnostic Imaging Department, Queen’s Veterinary School Hospital, University of Cambridge)
Image of Section of duodenum from a dog with inflammatory bowel disease, showing a moderate increase in numbers of lymphocytes in the lamina propria. H&E; bar = 50 µm.
Section of duodenum from a dog with inflammatory bowel disease, showing a moderate increase in numbers of lymphocytes in the lamina propria. H&E; bar = 50 µm. Section of duodenum from a dog with inflammatory bowel disease, showing a moderate increase in numbers of lymphocytes in the lamina propria. H&E; bar = 50 µm.
Image of Acupuncture may have transient sedative and anxiolytic effects. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley)
Acupuncture may have transient sedative and anxiolytic effects. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley) Acupuncture may have transient sedative and anxiolytic effects. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley)
Image of Yorkshire Terrier in the intensive care unit. An intravenous fluid line is in place plus a urinary catheter to allow monitoring of urine output.
Yorkshire Terrier in the intensive care unit. An intravenous fluid line is in place plus a urinary catheter to allow monitoring of urine output. Yorkshire Terrier in the intensive care unit. An intravenous fluid line is in place plus a urinary catheter to allow monitoring of urine output.
Image of Ultrasonogram showing acute pancreatitis. Note the hypoechoic (black) pancreas surrounded by hyperechoic (white) mesentery. (Courtesy of Diagnostic Imaging Department, Queen’s Veterinary School Hospital, University of Cambridge)
Ultrasonogram showing acute pancreatitis. Note the hypoechoic (black) pancreas surrounded by hyperechoic (white) mesentery. (Courtesy of Diagnostic Imaging Department, Queen’s Veterinary School Hospital, University of Cambridge) Ultrasonogram showing acute pancreatitis. Note the hypoechoic (black) pancreas surrounded by hyperechoic (white) mesentery. (Courtesy of Diagnostic Imaging Department, Queen’s Veterinary School Hospital, University of Cambridge)
Image of Hospital procedures can be stressful for an anxious dog.
Hospital procedures can be stressful for an anxious dog. Hospital procedures can be stressful for an anxious dog.
Image of Baby rice mixed with water is a good initial diet to use orally in dogs with pancreatitis.
Baby rice mixed with water is a good initial diet to use orally in dogs with pancreatitis. Baby rice mixed with water is a good initial diet to use orally in dogs with pancreatitis.
Image of PPN solution in use in the intensive care unit. Such a solution can provide up to 50% of the calorie requirements intravenously for the patient.
PPN solution in use in the intensive care unit. Such a solution can provide up to 50% of the calorie requirements intravenously for the patient. PPN solution in use in the intensive care unit. Such a solution can provide up to 50% of the calorie requirements intravenously for the patient.
Image of Needling the linea alba. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley)
Needling the linea alba. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley) Needling the linea alba. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley)
Image of High-fat tit-bits such as sausages, bacon and cheese should be avoided in dogs predisposed to pancreatitis.
High-fat tit-bits such as sausages, bacon and cheese should be avoided in dogs predisposed to pancreatitis. High-fat tit-bits such as sausages, bacon and cheese should be in dogs predisposed to pancreatitis.
Image of Cocker Spaniel with chronic pancreatitis.
Cocker Spaniel with chronic pancreatitis. Cocker Spaniel with chronic pancreatitis.
Image of Section of pancreas showing chronic pancreatitis with marked fibrosis (stained red) surrounding sparse remaining acini. Sirrius red stain; bar = 100 µm.
Section of pancreas showing chronic pancreatitis with marked fibrosis (stained red) surrounding sparse remaining acini. Sirrius red stain; bar = 100 µm. Section of pancreas showing chronic pancreatitis with marked fibrosis (stained red) surrounding sparse remaining acini. Sirrius red stain; bar = 100 µm.
Image of Section of pancreas from a Cocker Spaniel with chronic pancreatitis, stained immunohistochemically for cytokeratin, demonstrating duct destruction. Mouse anti-human AE1/AE2; bar = 30 µm.
Section of pancreas from a Cocker Spaniel with chronic pancreatitis, stained immunohistochemically for cytokeratin, demonstrating duct destruction. Mouse anti-human AE1/AE2; bar = 30 µm. Section of pancreas from a Cocker Spaniel with chronic pancreatitis, stained immunohistochemically for cytokeratin, demonstrating duct destruction. Mouse anti-human AE1/AE2; bar = 30 µm.
Image of Paraspinal needling for pancreatitis pain. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley)
Paraspinal needling for pancreatitis pain. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley) Paraspinal needling for pancreatitis pain. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley)
Image of Needling the rectus abdominis muscle. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley)
Needling the rectus abdominis muscle. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley) Needling the rectus abdominis muscle. (Courtesy of Samantha Lindley)
Image of Carrots and apples can be used as low-fat tit-bits.
Carrots and apples can be used as low-fat tit-bits. Carrots and apples can be used as low-fat tit-bits.
Image of DSH cat with triaditis, refusing the food offered.
DSH cat with triaditis, refusing the food offered. DSH cat with triaditis, refusing the food offered.
Image of Administering oral transmucosal buprenorphine. (Courtesy of Polly Taylor)
Administering oral transmucosal buprenorphine. (Courtesy of Polly Taylor) Administering oral transmucosal buprenorphine. (Courtesy of Polly Taylor)
Image of If there is prolonged anorexia and development of hepatic lipidosis, gastrostomy tube feeding would be appropriate. The feeding tube is covered with a body bandage.
If there is prolonged anorexia and development of hepatic lipidosis, gastrostomy tube feeding would be appropriate. The feeding tube is covered with a body bandage. If there is prolonged anorexia and development of hepatic lipidosis, gastrostomy tube feeding would be appropriate. The feeding tube is covered with a body bandage.
Image of Continuous monitoring of interstitial blood glucose concentrations in a diabetic cat. (Courtesy of Michael Herrtage and Lucy Davison)
Continuous monitoring of interstitial blood glucose concentrations in a diabetic cat. (Courtesy of Michael Herrtage and Lucy Davison) Continuous monitoring of interstitial blood glucose concentrations in a diabetic cat. (Courtesy of Michael Herrtage and Lucy Davison)
Image of Blood glucose can be monitored at home relatively easily. (Courtesy of Danièlle Gunn-Moore)
Blood glucose can be monitored at home relatively easily. (Courtesy of Danièlle Gunn-Moore) Blood glucose can be monitored at home relatively easily. (Courtesy of Danièlle Gunn-Moore)
Image of Liver section from a dog with chronic hepatitis, showing a multifocal lymphocytic infiltrate and some early fibrosis. H&E; bar = 30 µm.
Liver section from a dog with chronic hepatitis, showing a multifocal lymphocytic infiltrate and some early fibrosis. H&E; bar = 30 µm. Liver section from a dog with chronic hepatitis, showing a multifocal lymphocytic infiltrate and some early fibrosis. H&E; bar = 30 µm.
Image of Hiding dried food in a toy can help increase stimulation in a dog with restricted exercise. (© Helen Zulch)
Hiding dried food in a toy can help increase stimulation in a dog with restricted exercise. (© Helen Zulch) Hiding dried food in a toy can help increase stimulation in a dog with restricted exercise. (© Helen Zulch)
Image of Copper storage disease is well known in Bedlington Terriers.
Copper storage disease is well known in Bedlington Terriers. Copper storage disease is well known in Bedlington Terriers.
Image of Copper granules are visible in the hepatocytes. Giemsa; original magnification x1000. (Courtesy of Elizabeth Villiers)
Copper granules are visible in the hepatocytes. Giemsa; original magnification x1000. (Courtesy of Elizabeth Villiers) Copper granules are visible in the hepatocytes. Giemsa; original magnification x1000. (Courtesy of Elizabeth Villiers)
Image of The sudden development of very pale mucous membranes should trigger an emergency laparotomy to stop bleeding from the biopsy site.
The sudden development of very pale mucous membranes should trigger an emergency laparotomy to stop bleeding from the biopsy site. The sudden development of very pale mucous membranes should trigger an emergency laparotomy to stop bleeding from the biopsy site.
Image of Jaundiced mucous membranes. (Courtesy of Michael Herrtage)
Jaundiced mucous membranes. (Courtesy of Michael Herrtage) Jaundiced mucous membranes. (Courtesy of Michael Herrtage)

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