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Medical nursing

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Abstract

This chapter is designed to give information on common infectious diseases and diseases of body systems, together with the nursing role in medical diseases. It also covers nursing geriatric, recumbent or soiled patients, dealing with anorexic patients and providing assisted feeding, administration of enemas; urinary catheterization, physiotherapy and medical nursing of exotic pets.

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Figures

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9.3 Canine infectious diseases. indicates a zoonosis.
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9.4 Feline infectious diseases. indicates a zoonosis.
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9.5 Infectious diseases affecting both dogs and cats. indicates a zoonosis.
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9.6 Yellowing of teeth as a result of enamel hypoplasia due to distemper during tooth development. (Reproduced from . © Dr Ian Ramsey)
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9.7 Tongue ulceration in a cat infected with feline calicivirus. (Reproduced from )
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9.8 Ocular and nasal discharge in a kitten with cat flu. Feline herpesvirus was isolated from this kitten. (Reproduced from )
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9.10 Differentiating upper from lower respiratory tract disease.
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9.11 Mucopurulent nasal discharge from a dog with a nasal tumour. (Reproduced from )
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9.12 Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Blood flows from the left ventricle, into the aorta, and then into the pulmonary artery (instead of going to the body where it is needed). Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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9.13 Ventricular septal defect. Blood flows from the left to the right heart through a hole in the septum, causing congestive heart failure. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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9.14 Tetralogy of Fallot. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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9.16 Blood pressure. The systolic reading indicates the blood pressure within the arteries after ejection from the ventricles (when the myocardium contracts). The diastolic reading indicates the blood pressure within the arteries when the myocardium relaxes. The systolic reading is higher than the diastolic reading.
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9.18 How to measure arterial blood pressure using a non-invasive technique. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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9.24 Common types of foreign body found in the alimentary tract. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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9.25 Radiograph showing radiodense foreign body in the intestine of a dog.
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9.29 Radiograph revealing multiple radiodense calculi in the urinary bladder of a dog. These were subsequently found to be struvite calculi.
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9.31 Ideal blood glucose curves for a stable diabetic cat and dog (insulin administered at 8 am). A stable diabetic cat is able to maintain a blood glucose range of 5–15 mmol/l for most of each 24-hour period. A stable diabetic dog is able to maintain a blood glucose range of 5–12 mmol/l for most of a 24-hour period. (Data courtesy of Intervet, UK)
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9.32 Insulin types and dosages.
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9.34 Appearance of a hypothyroid dog. (Reproduced from )
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9.35 Influence of parathormone on blood calcium and phosphorus levels. (Reproduced from Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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9.36 Parasitic skin diseases. indicates a zoonosis.
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9.37 Dermatophytosis (ringworm) lesion on human skin.
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9.40 Good oral hygiene is especially important in geriatric patients.
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9.41 Sites liable to decubitus ulcer formation. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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9.42 Syringing water carefully into the patient’s mouth.
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9.43 Appropriate choice of feeding procedures.
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9.44 Methods of appetite stimulation.
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9.49 Diagrammatic representation of a gastrostomy tube inside the animal. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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9.53 Higginson’s syringe, phosphate enema and Microlax.
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9.57 Types of urinary catheter. From top to bottom: Jackson cat catheter; metal bitch catheter; Tieman bitch catheter; Portex dog catheter 6 FG; Portex bitch catheter 8 FG; Foley catheter with stylet in place.
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9.58 A closer view of the tips of the urinary catheters. From left to right: Foley catheter with stylet in place; two plain plastic dog catheters; Tieman bitch catheter (with curved tip); Jackson cat catheter; metal bitch catheter.
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9.60 Speculum.
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9.67 Spigot attached to a Foley catheter.
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9.70 Percussion (coupage) uses cupped hands and loose wrists.
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9.71 Effleurage of the hindlimb. The palm of the massaging hand is held flat, with a firm gliding movement pushing up from the distal to the proximal limb.
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9.72 Petrissage of the hindlimb in a recumbent patient.
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9.74 Passive exercise of the forelimb. Abduction. Adduction. Flexion. Extension.
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9.75 Stages of active exercise and movement.

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