Anaesthesia and analgesia

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Avian respiratory and cardiovascular physiology is reviewed here only as it applies to anaesthesia and management of the anaesthetized avian patient. This chapter opens discussion on anatomy and physiology; preanaesthetic assessment and examination; approach to analgesia; analgesics; preanaesthetics and sedatives; anaesthetics; patient support and monitoring; and management of anaesthetic emergencies.

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10.1 The glottis of a pigeon.
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10.6 A variety of facemasks, some with modification for use in avian anaesthesia. Mask anaesthetic maintenance is generally preferred for small birds in which endotracheal tubes may become occluded by thick tracheal secretions. Note the cotton ball placement for appropriate neck positioning to facilitate a patent airway.
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10.7 Multiple options for avian endotracheal intubation. Cuffed tubes are not inflated; stepped tubes are inserted into the glottis until their wider part creates a partial seal. An intubated pigeon. Intubation of a Great Horned Owl, showing the endotracheal tube secured to the lower beak.
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10.8 Air sac perfusion anaesthesia. The tube is inserted into the caudal abdominal/thoracic air sac cranial to the leg, then connected to a T-piece. (© John Chitty)
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10.10 Close-up of Great Horned Owl with a Doppler probe held in place over the radial artery via a ‘clip’ created from tongue depressors, rubber band and a cotton ball.
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10.11 Determination of systolic blood pressure in a pigeon using a sphygmomanometer, with inflatable cuff (A) placed on the tibiotarsus, and a Doppler probe (B) placed on the dorsal metatarsal artery. C = foot; D = sphygmomanometer tube.
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