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CT and MRI scanning and interpretation

image of CT and MRI scanning and interpretation
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Abstract

Diagnostic imaging modalities in veterinary medicine are becoming increasingly sophisticated, and the use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has increased over the last decade. This chapter explains principles and equipment, indications for CT and MRI, restraint and positioning; and conditions in which CT or MRI scanning may be diagnostic.

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Figures

Image of 9.2
9.2 MPR enables the creation of CT images in all planes. The right-hand image (with the yellow box lining) corresponds to the yellow line in the left lower image. 3D bone reconstruction, showing the head of a rabbit with bilateral apical infection of the mandibular cheek teeth at the level of the premolars. This is visible as a bony expansive lesion (*) ventral to the mandible.
Image of 9.3
9.3 Transverse CT image (bone setting) of the same rabbit as in Figure 9.2b . It shows bilateral severely deformed mandibles due to extensive apical abscessation (A) of the premolar cheek teeth (*). The roots of the involved cheek teeth are deformed and hypoattenuating. Transverse CT image (soft tissue setting) of a different rabbit, showing a large lobular abscess (A) lateral to the right maxilla. Ring enhancement is present. The adjacent maxillary bone is irregular (*), and apical infection with minimal nasal mucosal swelling and fluid is visible.
Image of 9.4
9.4 Transverse CT image (soft tissue setting after intravenous contrast injection) of the head at the level of the cribriform plate. A well defined space-occupying neoplastic mass (M) is visible in the nasopharynx, extending intracranially and in the retrobulbar area via osteolytic areas of the cribriform plate (<) and medial orbital wall (>). Minimal right-sided exophthalmos is present.
Image of 9.5
9.5 Dacryocystography. Transverse CT image (bone setting) of the head at the level of the premolars. Contrast medium is visible in the left nasolacrimal duct (*). Soft tissue attenuating material is present in the right nasolacrimal duct (>). Dorsal MPR of the same rabbit. Contrast medium is present in the left nasolacrimal canal (*). Only a minimal amount of contrast medium is visible, followed by air that is outlining a soft tissue attenuating structure blocking the right nasolacrimal canal (>). The large extent of the blockage is clearly visualized.
Image of 9.6
9.6 Transverse CT image (bone setting) of the head at the level of the tympanic bullae (B) and axial external ear canal (E). Both are air-filled and the wall of the tympanic bulla is smooth and thin. Transverse CT image (bone setting) of the head at the level of the tympanic bullae (B): the tympanic bullae are almost completely filled with a soft tissue attenuating material bilaterally. Note the minimal thickening of the tympanic bulla wall (>). Transverse CT image (bone setting) of the head at the level of the tympanic bullae (B): note the bilateral extensive deformation and osteolysis of the tympanic bulla wall (>). The tympanic bullae are completely filled with a soft tissue attenuating material.
Image of 9.7
9.7 Transverse CT image (soft tissue setting after intravenouscontrast medium) of the head at the level of the cranium. The slightly hyperattenuating structure in the central and ventral part of the cranium, together with the very small hyperattenuating rim adjacent to the cranial bones, represents the brain tissue (B). The hypoattenuating area in between these two represents fluid in the lateral ventricles (*). The diagnosis was severe hydrocephalus. Transverse T2-weighted MR image of the same rabbit. The fluid in the lateral ventricles is hyperintense (*) and the brain tissue (B) at the centre and near the cranial bones is slightly hypointense.
Image of 9.8
9.8 Transverse CT image (bone setting) of the thorax at the level of the caudal main bronchi: a soft tissue attenuating nodule is visible dorsal to the left caudal main bronchus (*). Multiple soft tissue nodules of varying size were present in the lungs and were considered to be metastases of a previously diagnosed uterine carcinoma. Transverse CT image (soft tissue setting) of the abdomen at the level of the stomach (S) of the same rabbit. Irregular nodular changes (*) are seen in the abdominal fat, consistent with carcinomatosis of the uterine carcinoma.

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