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Muscle, tendon and ligament injuries

image of Muscle, tendon and ligament injuries
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Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of the anatomy and physiology of muscle, tendon and ligament, as well as detailing muscle injury, healing and treatment; tendon and ligament injury and treatment; specific muscle and tendon injuries of the thoracic and pelvic limbs; and muscle contracture.

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Figures

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9.1 Schematic drawing of the structure of normal muscle. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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9.2 Schematic drawing of the structure of a normal tendon. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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9.4 Suture patterns used for muscle repair: (a) horizontal mattress; (b) near–far, far–near. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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9.5 Suture patterns for repair of round tendons: (a) locking loop; Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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9.6 Suture patterns used to repair short flat tendons: Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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9.7 Modifications of (a) the locking loop and (b) the three-loop pulley suture patterns to reattach tendon to bone. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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9.8 Dorsopalmar view of a feline carpus following repair of the radial collateral ligament using a suture anchor in the radius; the carpus is immobilized with a transarticular external skeletal fixator (TESF).
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9.9 Suture anchors: (a) transcortical bone anchor; (b) subcortical anchor. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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9.10 Prosthetic replacement of the long and short components of the collateral ligament of the tarsal joint. Suture anchors or screws should be inserted to mimic the origin and insertion points of the ligament as closely as possible. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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9.11 (a) Lateral and (b) dorsoplantar views of a canine tarsal joint immobilized with a transarticular external skeletal fixator (TESF) following a shear injury. The joint has been immobilized at a normal standing angle.
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9.14 Craniocaudal view of the shoulder joint showing infraspinatus bursal ossification.
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9.15 Mineralization of the supraspinatus muscle. (a) Lateral view of the shoulder joint. (b) Skyline view of the intertubercular groove.
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9.16 Radiograph of humerus showing calcification of the origin of the extensor carpi radialis muscle.
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9.17 Greyhound with avulsion of the gracilis origin. (Courtesy of R Eaton-Wells)
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9.18 Lateral view of a stifle joint showing avulsion of the origin of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle.
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9.19 Lateral view of a stifle joint showing avulsion of the popliteus muscle. The popliteal sesamoid bone is displaced distally (arrowed) and a small avulsion fragment is visible more proximally (arrowhead). (Courtesy of S Langley-Hobbs)
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9.20 Injury to the superficial digital flexor tendons resulting in ‘flat’ digits also known as ‘dropped toe’ (see Chapter 21).
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9.21 Anatomy of the common calcaneal tendon. The tendons of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and gracilis muscles unite with that of the gastrocnemius (shown on cross-section in pale red) and the resulting combined tendon is intimately associated with the superficial digital flexor tendons (shown on cross-section in pale grey) to form the common calcaneal tendon. The combined biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gracilis and gastrocnemius tendon inserts on to the tuber calcis of the calcaneus. The superficial digital flexor tendon courses distally over the tuber calcis and is loosely attached to it by a medial and lateral retinaculum. Drawn by S.J. Elmhurst BA Hons (www.livingart.org.uk) and reproduced with her permission.
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9.22 Avulsion of the gastrocnemius insertion. There is swelling of the soft tissues proximal to the tuber calcis and the toes are held flexed.
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9.23 Common calcaneal tendon rupture resulting in a plantigrade stance.
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9.24 Lateral view of a tarsal joint showing enthesophytes on the tuber calcis and mineralization in the soft tissues proximal to the tuber calcis.
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9.25 Stabilization of a tarsal joint with a calcaneotibial screw.
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9.26 Infraspinatus contracture in a Golden Retriever showing lateral deviation of the carpus when the limb is flexed.
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9.27 Quadriceps contracture in a German Shepherd Dog. (Courtesy of S Langley-Hobbs)

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